Fig. 10. Effects of weight percent of SiO2 nanoparticles in aqueous solution on rejection of crystal violet at 2 wt.% PEI.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The presence of dye molecules like crystal violet on the top surface of the membrane could cause the membrane fouling. As a result of this phenomenon, a gel layer could be formed on the top layer which enhances rejection of the membrane to crystal violet. By improving the NHS-SS-Biotin properties of the NF membrane with the increase of the SiO2 nanoparticle content, membrane fouling and thickness of gel layer would be reduced ,  and . It may be the higher hydrophilicity of SiO2 modified membranes, which would lessen the interaction between membrane surface and the pollutants, the pollutants sorption content on the membrane surface and membrane pore blockage reduces.
On the other hand, the increase in roughness of the membrane surface as a palindrome result of increasing SThe demand for novel microwave ceramics applications has been increasing rapidly in the mobile communication industries during the last decade. Recent studies have focused on developing good microwave dielectric materials to achieve device miniaturization and system stability. Generally speaking, three dielectric properties must be considered for materials used in microwave devices: MS275 high dielectric constant, a high quality factor, and a near-zero temperature coefficient of resonant frequency for the small size, low loss, and high temperature stability, respectively  and . Many researches on the Mg2SnO4 ceramics have been investigated for resonators, filters, and antennas in the modern communication systems, such as radar and global positioning systems (GPS) operating at microwave frequencies. Mg2SnO4 ceramics sintered at 1550 °C for 4 h combines a dielectric constant of 8.41 and a quality factor (Qf) of 55,100 GHz . The maximum values of dielectric constant and quality factor (Qf) for (Mg0.93Co0.07)2SnO4 ceramics sintered at 1550 °C for 4 h are carotenoids 8.8 and 110,800 GHz, respectively . A dielectric constant of 8.5 and a quality factor (Qf) of 186,100 GHz were obtained for (Mg0.93Zn0.07)2SnO4 ceramics sintered at 1550 °C for 4 h . Additionally, a dielectric constant of 8.72 and a quality factor (Qf) of 103,100 GHz were obtained for (Mg0.95Ni0.05)2SnO4 ceramics sintered at 1550 °C for 4 h .iO2 nanoparticle content would increase membrane fouling and thickness of the gel layer which cause improvement of retention ability of the NF membrane to crystal violet ,  and .