Up to now vacuum electron beam welding has drawn particular

Diffraction line positions in Fig. 4 are in accordance with the data in the cards for CrN (ICDD 11-0065), Cr2N (ICDD 35-0803), Fe (ICDD 06-0696). It should be noted that LY450139 the diffraction lines are shifted toward lower angles with respect to the equilibrium position of CrN, indicating macrostresses. It is caused by increasing substrate bias voltage, which may lead to changes in the phase composition of the coating as a result of resputtering and Cr2N phase formation (Fig. 4 a&b for UB = −300 V). Some lines are also broadened. This would indicate both the refinement of grains as well as the occurrence of microstresses. It should be noted that the position of the diffraction lines of iron and chromium (ICDD 06-0694) due to the strong similarity in the crystal structure – both cubic, Im3m (229) – and lattice parameter 0.28839 nm and 0.28664 nm respectively, are very close. Therefore, secondary xylem can not be excluded due to the fact that the presence of Cr-rich droplets in the coating [33], covering a relatively large area (described later, see Fig. 6) diffraction lines of iron substrate and chromium overlap.