Malaysia is a developing country

In relation to this, many concepts and practices for product returns in the reverse supply chains have been extensively discussed in the literature. Among the major concepts brought forward are industrial ecosystem, product life-cycle stages management, closed-loop supply chains, integrated supply chain management, and green or sustainable supply chains (Seuring, 2004). The main idea behind the concepts TAE226 to resolve environmental challenges across the supply chain through the extension of the product lifecycle, in which product returns are expected to create the utmost value during the reverse flow in a closed-loop supply chain (Mondragon et al., 2011). For example, Jayaraman and Luo (2007) described how product returns provide an opportunity for manufacturers to remarket the reusable products due to the large volume of returns rods could exceed six percent of total sales. In addition, Stock and Mulki (2009) found that effective product returns management could yield higher profitability due to lower operating cost and higher salvage or retrieval value of returns. Furthermore, the economic, regulatory, and customer pressures motivate business executives around the globe to implement an effective product returns management program (Srivastava and Srivastava, 2006).