The purpose of this study is to quantify the life cycle environmental and economic impacts of managing N and P in urine through urine source separation and struvite precipitation, as compared with centralized wastewater treatment. This study is unique due to the selected NU 7441 focus and the inclusion of all factors shown in Table 1. The results of this study are expected to highlight the potential benefits and costs of urine source separation in a university community with respect to potable water consumption, infrastructure, nutrient recovery, fertilizer offsets, and centralized wastewater treatment, thus also identifying major areas of the system requiring a deeper investigation.
2. Life cycle model
2.1. Scope of the study
The University of Florida, located in Gainesville, FL, USA, was selected as an appropriate community for urine source separation because of its small geographical footprint, high population density, and wastewater treatment facility solely dedicated to the campus community. University communities offer a unique opportunity to evaluate alternative wastewater regimens because wastewater production, treatment, and potential nutrient reuse are all within close proximity. The university is also a notable stakeholder, as it serves as the ratepayer for water and wastewater, the manager of the wastewater treatment system, and the purchaser for fertilizer use on campus. It should be noted, however, that although university communities are unique with regard to the allocation of impacts to stakeholders, the total quantification of impacts related to urine source separation could well be transferrable to other communities.