The kinetics model can be easily extrapolated to emulate geologic situation by changing the heating rate, and then the relationship between hydrocarbon generation uk101 rate and geological temperatures can be obtained. The thermal history at the sediment–water surface (SWIT) over geological times can be obtained by using the modules from PetroMod software . SWIT was assigned by global unified SWIT-Time template from PetroMod software incorporated with regional geography position (North latitude 45°) in Xujiaweizi Fault Depression of Songliao Basin. The heat flow history of a basin can be reconstructed by establishing an agreement between the calculated maturity parameters and the measured maturity parameters . The heat flow history of well Xueshen1 was reconstructed by using the EasyRo% model, measured vitrinite reflectance values and SWIT (Fig. 12B). The reconstructed burial and thermal history of Shahezi Formation of well Xushen1 are illustrated in Fig. 12. The hydrocarbon gas generation history can be calculated by the kinetic model established in immunoglobulins study and the kinematic parameters of coals in the Songliao Basin (Fig. 13). Based on the results derived from this model and as shown in Fig. 13, the timing of various gas generated in the Songliao Basin is that the generation of butane is earliest, followed by propane, ethane, with methane generation being the latest (Fig. 13), which was also supported by their kinetic parameters (Fig. 11). Based on this model, methane was generated from 115 to 50 Ma, lasting for around 65 Ma, which is longer than that of other hydrocarbon gases.