When compared with SC there is much less data
BHD is usually co- disposed in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. It has been reported that many operational issues of landfill occurred after disposal aluminum solid wastes, including BHD. High concentration of hydrogen (H2) (30–50%) with gaseous ammonia (NH3) (up to 15 000 ppmv) were detected (Gerbasi, 2006, Allen et al., 2009 and Stark et al., 2012). An increase in landfill temperature, 60 to 93 °C over a period of several months to several years (Gerbasi, 2006 and Allen et al., 2009) were also observed in a MSW landfill after disposal of these aluminum wastes. Above average concentration of F−, Cl−, NH4+, CN−, high pH and electric conductivity value in soil, leachate or groundwater, as well as the potential contaminations of heavy metals were also documented (USEPA, 1995, USEPA, 2008, Gerbasi, 2006, Swackhamer, 2006, OhioEPA, 2007, Allen et al., 2009 and Lorber and Antrekowitsch, 2010). It was known that MSW landfills are PF-04880594 systems that decompose the organic fraction of solid wastes with the temperature between 25 and 60 °C depending on the waste characteristics and location of landfill (Ye?iller et al., 2005 and Hanson et al., 2010). On the other hand, BHD is recognized as a hazardous waste in European Union countries (European-Commission, 2000) because it is considered to be “highly flammable” (Category H3-A) and an “irritant” (Category H4) (European-Commission, 1991). When BHD comes in contact with water or damp air, highly flammable gases form, and these gases can be explosive, as well as act as irritants to skin and mucous membranes. Furthermore, BHD has been found to be harmful if inhaled or ingested (Category H5) (European-Commission, 1991). BHD is also in the category of substances that are capable, after disposal (landfill or other), of potentially yielding another substance (e.g. leachate), which can possess any of the characteristics associated with the solid BHD or gaseous products (Category H13) (European-Commission, 1991). It is believed that the reactivity of aluminum wastes, including BHD is related to the composition and mineral phases of wastes (López-Delgado et al., 2007, Lorber and Antrekowitsch, 2010, SINTEF, 2010, Huang et al., 2012, Stark et al., 2012 and Tsakiridis, 2012).