Fig. 9(a) presents Smax/Emax of BNT–BKT with different template particles as a function of temperature. In the meantime, the corresponding negative strain (the definition is presented in the inset in Fig. 9(b)) versus temperature is summarized in Fig. 9(b). Based on the results shown in Fig. 6(b), the Td values of BNT–BKT with different template particles were marked by bar-type. As demonstrated in other BNT-based systems , Smax/Emax of both random BNT–BKT and BNT–BKT–5BT textured ceramic exhibit a strong temperature dependence with a peak at a temperature above Td of each composition, which is due to an enhancement in strain with the Nintedanib of the remanent strain originating from the destabilization of field-induced long-range FE order  and , as shown in Fig. 7(b) and summarized in Fig. 9(b). In this sense, a large Smax/Emax of 710 pm/V at room temperature and the monotonic decrease of Smax/Emax with the absence of a peak in Smax/Emax in the investigated temperature range is observed for BNT–BKT–5BT textured ceramics, which is attributed to the fact that the Td is already below the room temperature, as proved in Fig. 6(b). In addition, the negative strain of BNT–BKT–5BT textured ceramics is almost vanished throughout the whole temperature range investigated, resulting from the dominant presence of the ergodic relaxor phase. Consistent with the previously reported results in BNT-based materials  and , in the present study, comparison among the large single properties such as the normalized strain Smax/Emax and negative strains as a reference to Td is not relevant. The above-mentioned relevance between Smax/Emax and Td is considered to be the fact that Td itself is a function of electric field also , which has been proved in our previous work .