Range and trait distribution within communities were also affected by tillage intensity and time since the beginning of the experiment (Table 1). For FEve, the model with the interaction between time and tillage intensity had the lowest AICc score. For FRic, FDis and FDiv, the additive model was the most supported (Table 1). In general, CT plots had higher values in all four multi-trait LBH589 indices analyzed. FRic values were greater in CT plots, followed by NT and MT plots (Fig. 2). The dispersion of phenotypes within the functional space occupied by weed communities (FDis) was greatest in CT plots, followed by similar values in MT and NT plots. Both FRic and FDis values increased slightly throughout the duration of the experiment. Functional evenness increased throughout the experimental period in the CT plots, while it remained constant in MT and NT plots, resulting in larger FEve values in CT plots at the end of the experimental period (Table 2, Fig. 2). A high divergence in weed trait distribution (FDiv) was seen in the experiment, though values decreased throughout the duration of the experiment (Table 2, Fig. 2). FDiv was higher in CT and NT plots than in MT plots.