gamma-Secretase inhibitor IX In this way the increase in abundances of

The presence of riparian forest remnants can be important to improve stream water quality (Storey and Cowley, 1997 and Fernandes et al., 2014) and γ-Secretase inhibitor IX function (this study) in rural, deforested landscapes. We found that leaf breakdown rates rapidly increased as the stream entered the remnant, stabilizing within the first 100 m, beyond which variation in leaf breakdown rates was explained by riparian forest structure. In our study, the forest remnant enabled the permanence of an important macroinvertebrate functional group (shredders), which possibly influenced leaf breakdown rates. This suggests that the conservation of even relatively small fragments of forest may be able to conserve important ecosystem functions that are otherwise absent in these landscapes. However, it is still not known for how long downstream these functions are maintained after the stream leaves the forest fragment. Our study was conducted on a single stream, and differences in land-use patterns, fragment sizes, and regional faunal composition could lead to distinct mechanisms in leaf breakdown and, therefore, in different patterns. The arrangement of forest remnants in landscapes and the heterogeneity among remnants resulting from differences in forest structure can be important for the management of water quality (Goforth and Bain, 2010 and Miserendino et al., 2011) and biodiversity (Chazdon, 2003 and Brooks et al., 2012). Hence, to evaluate these effects on stream ecosystem functions, it will be necessary to evaluate multiple forests under differing land-use contexts to assess the generality of these forest remnant effects on small streams.