Table nbsp Number of TiN TiN island

It was argued [13] that the red shift is not due to a change in bandgap of the CdS layer but rather to a pronounced sub-bandgap tailing, which is amplified by the high surface area in the composite film. Other possible interpretations of the band gap shrinkage were also discussed in [13], such as electron transitions between the CdS valence band and the ZnO conduction band, surface absorption and hybridization of Cd–Cd bonds between adjacent NPs.