As shown in 3.2 and 3.3, differences were observed in the emission-based and OFP-based speciated characteristics and source contributions. These differences may lead to different policy implications for O3 control strategies. In this study, emissions of more than 130 VOC species were estimated. Toluene, benzene, ethene, m/p-xylene and the other 40 VOC species together made up 80% of the VOC emissions, in a decreasing order. From the perspective of emission-based control, the above 44 high emission-based contributing species should be targeted. Consequently, as shown in Fig. 6, control of the 44 species could lead to 80% of VOC emission reduction, which can benefit 83% Methimazole of anthropogenic OFPs. On the other hand, from the perspective of reactivity-based control, high OFP-contributing species would be targeted with priority instead of high emission-contributing species. Species-based OFPs revealed that ethene, m/p-xylene, toluene, 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene and the other 24 species were the high OFP-contributing species that contributed to 80% of the anthropogenic OFPs. If emissions of the 28 high OFP-contributing species were abated completely, VOC emission could be reduced by 52% but the reduction of anthropogenic OFPs could be up to 80%. In other words, as shown in Fig. 6, the reactivity-based control is more efficient than the emission-based approach by achieving similar OFP reduction via less emission reduction.