Conflict of interest There is no conflict of interest amount

Moreover, the moderate class increased (+ 13.4%) in the middle-lower watershed, while low to very low contribution to groundwater pollution hazard decreased (− 15.2%) in the same sector. Forecasted land-use and water table depth maps led to changes in groundwater pollution hazard. Significant changes on the simulated land-use map increase groundwater pollution hazard contribution (+ 11.6%) in the higher class; more so, a moderate class rise was also detected (+ 30.7%).