On the other hand, the high external electric field pre-treatment of the composition or thermal aging procedure can stimulate the switching process of defect dipoles, following the ferroelectric polarization. In this JSH-23 case, the single ferroelectric reversible hysteresis loops, which are similar to those in ordinary soft ferroelectrics, can be observed. Similar behavior in the temperature dependence of P–E hysteresis loops were observed for all KPN–NPN–KWN solid solutions.
The broad maxima observed in the dielectric permittivity curves might indicate the presence of a diffuse phase transition or a relaxor state in the KPN–NPN–KWN ceramics. In fact, the ternary solid solution KPN–NPN–KWN exhibits more relaxor-like dielectric behavior, with broad dielectric peaks and diffused dielectric behavior with respect to frequency.
It is well known auxins the first-order normal ferroelectrics could be described by the Curie–Weiss law:equation(1)1ε=(T-Tc)CW,where CW is the Curie constant and Tc is the Curie–Weiss temperature . For normal ferroelectrics, the dielectric permittivity ? obeys the Curie–Weiss law above Curie temperature Tc.