Outdoor concentrations of air pollutants were

Escherichia coli are members of the Enterobacteriaceae family and are often harmless commensals found in large numbers in the intestines of warm-blooded animals, including healthy humans ( Blaak et al., 2014 and Georgiou and Langford, 2002). However, some types are pathogenic and can cause serious diseases such as urinary tract infections and bacteraemia ( European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2014). E. coli LB42708 a leading cause of bloodstream infections, causing nearly 100-times as many infections as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in England in 2013 ( Public Health England, 2014a and Public Health England, 2014b). Increasing numbers of infections caused by third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E. coli (3GCREC) in recent years in the UK (and elsewhere) present a threat to public health. In particular vulnerable people (e.g. the elderly, immunocompromised, and hospitalised) are at risk of developing life-threatening opportunistic infections caused by 3GCREC cell theory are difficult to treat. Another characteristic of E. coli that makes them a considerable threat is their ability to acquire MGEs, which can be transferred to other members of the enteric microbial community, including transient pathogens ( Winokur et al., 2001).