Fig xA Variation of ionic and electronic conductivity

Fig. 13. Measured dielectric loss factor as BTB06584 function of frequency at different temperatures.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
4. Conclusions
CaGd2−x(WO4)4:Er3+/Yb3+ phosphors with the doping concentrations of Er3+ and Yb3+ (x=Er3++Yb3+, Er3+=0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and Yb3+=0.2, 0.45) have been successfully synthesized by the microwave sol–gel method and the crystal structure refinement, and upconversion photoluminescence properties have been investigated. Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
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Keywords
Double tungstate; Microwave sol–gel; Upconversion; XRD refinement; Raman
1. Introduction
In the present study, the CaGd2−x(WO4)4:Er3+/Yb3+ solid solutions with the doping concentrations of Er3+ and Yb3+ (x=Er3++Yb3+, Er3+=0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and Yb3+=0.2, 0.45) were synthesized by the microwave sol–gel method, and the crystal structure refinement and UC photoluminescence properties evaluation were performed. The synthesized particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The spectroscopic properties were examined comparatively using photoluminescence (PL) emission and Raman spectroscopy.