Li and Richter (2012) suggested that soils developed under agriculture/silviculture management had a significant influence on the crystallinity of Fe over decades and centuries. Likewise, Šamonil et al. (2010b) observed differences between the representation of Fe forms in forest soils with different management (natural and managed forest). Thus, managed forests can be considered as environments with a higher content of crystalline Fe forms.
Additional information about the distribution of Fe forms in forest BAMB-4 could be provided by studying the Fe isotope composition. Kiczka et al. (2011) successfully described Fe isotope (56Fe a 54Fe) fractionation and chronosequence development in a 150 year time gradient in an Alpine soil after glacial retreat. Main sources of Fe isotope fractionation were identified as weathering of silicate minerals, with Fe release during initial soil formation (Kiczka et al., 2011). From the viewpoint of some features it is possible to compare the pedogenesis of soils after deglaciation and after uprooting, because of the reset of “pedogenetical clocks”. However, the conditions of pedogenesis are hardly comparable. It is obvious that the pedogenesis of an uprooted site is connected to previous soil development. On the other hand, development after e.g. deglaciation starts from the beginning (Kabala and Zapart, 2012).