To see whether the above analytical approximation reflects accurately the

For these THZ1 initial preferences, the simulation results differ from the analytical prediction regarding equilibrium action play (section ‘Equilibrium behaviour’) and also regarding the evolutionary outcome (section ‘ESS analysis’), because pairs of PTR individuals sometimes learn to cooperate despite their initial tendency to defect. Hence, certain pairs of PTR individuals learn to cooperate and some other pairs learn to defect, while the interactions involving PHR always lead to Defection (Fig. 3d, e, f).