In order to select the most appropriate cleaning protocol

In order to select the most appropriate cleaning protocol, the study of membrane autopsies can be very helpful, detecting and identifying the specific membrane fouling compounds, as well as analyzing the membrane integrity. Different deposits affect the chir99021 performance in many ways, so that the cleaning strategies will depend on the type of deposit. In the literature, there are no studies related to membrane autopsies and their application to OPW.
Until now, most of the studies about the application of ceramics for treating OPW with ceramic membranes were carried out using synthetic OPW in experiments, excepting Abadi et al. (2011), who used refinery wastewater and Li and Lee (2009), who applied CBM produced water to their studies. However, OPW is considerably different from the effluents used by those authors. Most of them ran their experiments during a short period of time, making the prediction of the long-term filtration behavior more difficult.
The overall objective of this work was to provide more information and increase the understanding on the application of ceramic membranes for OPW treatment aiming the reinjection in offshore oil production platforms. In this sense, experiments were conducted with an ultrafiltration ceramic membrane using a real OPW sample in order to better evaluate the fouling phenomenon, membrane permeability and also verify the obtained permeate suitability for reinjection. In addition, the influence of operational conditions such as TMP and CFV on permeate flux was also investigated. After permeation experiments, the membranes were analyzed by SEM-EDS to identify the main foulant compounds and to establish an appropriate membrane cleaning strategy.