The OPW used for the tests was collected from a Brazilian oil production unit, characterized by measuring the particle size distribution (Mastersizer Micro, Malvern Instruments) and by analyzing its physical chemical characteristics such as the main salts and O&G content. The complete water characterization is presented in Section 3.1.
2.2.1. Membrane characteristics
A SCH 727965 multitubular ceramic membrane, supplied by Likuid-Nanotek was used in this study.