In the food textile paper or agriculture industry commercially available

In the food, textile, paper, or agriculture industry, commercially available oxidoreductase enzymes, particularly glycoside hydrolyses such as cellulases, that degrade cellulose to shorter CX-5461 (glucose) are widely used [4]. Cellulases include at least three basic fractions of enzymes: endo-(1,4) β-d-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4), exo-(1,4) β-d-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.91), and β-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) [5]. These enzymes are usually immobilized on insoluble carriers [6]. However, the immobilization of cellulase onto reversibly soluble methacrylate copolymers [7], nanofibrous PVA membranes [8], and silica gels [9] and [10] has also been studied.
Carriers with reactive primary amino groups require the use of glutaraldehyde (GA) as a spacer molecule. In an aqueous medium, bifunctional glutaraldehyde reacts rapidly with the amino groups of the carrier and the α-amino groups of the enzyme [18] and [19] and creates stable imide bonds. The introduction of primary amino groups to the polymeric carrier is myelin sheath not easy and requires the use of carcinogen ethyleneimine. An alternative route is the use of N-vinylformamide (NVF) as the poly(vinylamine) PVAm precursor, which is readily hydrolyzed to PVAm [20]. Insoluble VAm carrier units can be obtained from NVF crosslinked with divinylbenzene (DVB) in a single-step hydrolysis process [21]. To date, on such supports, only α-amylase has been successfully immobilized [22].