Conclusions AcknowledgmentsFinancial support was provided by the National Natural

4. Conclusions
AcknowledgmentsFinancial support was provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China through its key project funding CNFS No. 51236005 and by the Ministry of Science and Technology through its 973 National Key Project 2013CB228401.
Smart grid; Photovoltaic electricity; Self-consumption; Electric vehicle; Vehicle-to-grid
1. Introduction
The transition to low carbon PH-797804 and transport systems requires not only the large-scale adoption of clean technologies and efficiency measures, but also new energy management strategies to efficiently incorporate these innovations in the existing infrastructure. Issues related to the grid integration of clean technologies can occur both at the energy supply side, with technologies such as photovoltaics (PV), and on the demand side, with technologies such as electric vehicles (EV). Sophisticated energy management can help solving these issues and optimise allocation of resources, for instance by charging EVs with PV power instead of electricity from coal or gas-fired power plants.