While producing the delivered district heat VEAB rsquo s combined

The lower end of the error bars (less negative value in case of CO2 emission of the district heating buildings) would result if COP-factor of the existing installed air-source heat pumps was lower (2), i.e. a lower final energy demand and consequently lower primary energy use and CO2 emission. In the scenarios where all the houses had only bedrock or air-source heat pump, the lower ends of the error bars also reflect the situation where the heat pumps have a high COP factor (4 for bedrock heat pump and 3.33 for air-source heat pump) i.e.