Fig xA Variation in dark conductivity with reciprocal of

The thickness of the films was measured using stylus-type instrument, to know the deposition rate in the films. Samples for conductivity measurement were prepared by thermal Carminomycin technique to make coplanar Al electrodes through a shadow mask. Temperature dependent conductivity measurements of the samples was measured in vacuum better than 10E−4 Torr using a Keithley 617 programmable electrometer, using coplanar geometry with a effective gap of 0.078 cm between the electrodes. The dark (σdk) and photoconductivity (σph) (measured under the illumination of 100 mw/cm2) measurements were done from room temperature to 200 °C. The conductivity measurements allowed us to obtain the σ (T) in a wide range and to determine the activation energy (Ea) and the room temperature conductivity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) from Nanoscope V multimode was used to analyze the surface roughness in the films to observe the effect of deposition parameters at the formation of silicon clusters on the micro or nanocrystalline silicon film surface. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement was performed using Rigaku ultima IV diffractometer with Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.54 Å). A Perkin–Elmer Ultraviolet–visible Spectrometer in the range 350–1240 nm was used to deduce the optical band gap of the deposited films from transmission spectra.