Regarding future developments of the present work, we think that it would be interesting to explore whether the observed associations are maintained at later stages of the children\'s development. In fact, while the assessment of individual cognitive development at early ages is considered to have limited predictive value for future development at the individual level (Hess et al., 2004), early cognitive and especially motor developments have been correlated with the performance in older ages at the VE-822 level (Langkamp and Harris, 1992). Finally, the role of the exposure to specific chemical constituents of particles on children\'s development should be assessed, with the aim to help in development of more targeted policies of air pollution reduction.
This study suggests mesoderm prenatal residential exposure to PM2.5 and NO2 may adversely affect infant neuropsychological development and support a possible independent effect of the two contaminants. The effects of PM2.5 and NO2 on both psychomotor and cognitive developments early in life may be stronger in the proximity of metal processing plants, suggesting that the specific chemical composition of small particles from industrial sources and, more in general, the toxic mixture close to industrial emission sources should be taken into account to better understand the role of air pollution on neuropsychological development.