AcknowledgmentsThe study was supported by the National Basic Research Program

In restriction enzymes study, we used a large population-based cohort of women with over 30 years of follow-up data to quantify the prevalence risks of cardiovascular conditions, cancers, diabetes and respiratory diseases in association with PM2.5 exposure. Since these conditions and diseases are chronic (i.e., with a relatively long duration), measures of disease prevalence would better characterize the burden of illness than incidence. A better understanding of the long-term risks of exposure to air pollution on these major chronic conditions will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on health as a whole.