Cell culture and in vitro evaluation Samples for cell
Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites are high-temperature structural materials for aircraft and aerospace applications. They are also considered to be potential orthopaedics materials due to their favorable mechanical properties and good biocompatibility with blood and MDL 72832  and . On the basis of these advantages, C/C composites have been studied as artificial bone replacement candidates for many years. However, this kind of material may release carbon debris to surrounding tissues during and/or after a bone replacement surgery . To eliminate this problem, several kinds of films and coatings have been applied on the surface of C/C composites, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings, titanium films and calcium phosphate coatings , , , ,  and . Though the release of carbon debris from C/C composites would be minimized by these coatings, the bioinert surface of C/C composites is still a big issue. The lack of biological activity or weak bonding strength of coatings still limited the further biomedical application of C/C composites ,  and . Therefore, cuticle is a need to address these problems by surface modification of C/C composites.