Measurement of AFM probe down

This section describes applying offset AMI-193 cutting method in to the fabrication of bulgy shape nanochannel. The lateral nanochannel was fabricated in two offset cycles (Fig. 5), and the longitudinal nanochannel was fabricated in one offset cycle (Fig. 6). Consequently, bulgy shape nanochannel was formed because the lateral nanochannel was larger than the longitudinal nanochannel (Fig. 6). As illustrated in Fig. 5, the first offset cycle was formed by lines 1–3, and the second offset cycle was formed by lines 3–5. Each line indicates a cutting pass; the indicated offset distances of 90, 60, and 30 nm were obtained from the CAD simulation results. The first five cutting passes were completed in two lateral offset cycles (Fig. 5). Subsequently, the probe was offset from the fifth cutting pass to the initial position of the sixth cutting pass, and one longitudinal offset cycle comprising cutting passes indicated by lines 6, 7, and 8 was performed (Fig. 6); the indicated offset distances of 60 and 30 nm were obtained from the CAD simulation results. Thus, bulgy shape nanochannel was fabricated using the offset cycle cutting method, and the depth and width of the fabricated bulgy shape nanochannel were measured experimentally.