The importance of a correct
Fig. 5(b) instead shows the electricity consumption pattern of the heating system of a single building in different ADR cases. With ADR, the overall operational system costs are minimized by exploiting the flexibility of the electric power demand of the heating systems, due to the storage capability of the thermal loads, both in the building envelope and in the DHW storage tank. Due to the availability of cheap generation capacity during the night, the building PTC124 preheated compared to the case of no ADR participation (0% ADR) (Fig. 5(b)). In fact, the electricity consumption is shifted to low price periods and the energy is stored in the thermal mass of the building (Fig. 6(a)) or in the storage tank (Fig. 6(b)). This causes more thermal losses and hence a higher energy use, though the overall operational system cost is lower. As a consequence, the inside temperature of whatever ADR case, even if the thermal comfort is maintained, can be higher than the minimum energy case, in which the temperature is as low as possible while maintaining thermal comfort (Fig. 6).