As shown in Table 1, with the wind direction θW=0°θW=0°, from the North, the optimal layout improves the power production efficiency by about 10%. For the case of θW=41°θW=41°, an improvement of about 56% is achieved comparing to initial layouts that A-674563 suffers relatively high wake influence from the upstream wind turbines. To optimize the power production, the wind turbines are scattered around to avoid the alignment between the wind direction and the wind turbine arrays. Note that, as shown in Fig. 12(b), the wind turbines move collectively in the clockwise direction while fully exploiting the allowed wind farm area. For the case of θW=90°θW=90° where the wind flow coming from the eastern direction, the wind turbine arrays are initially parallel to the wind flow; as a result, the wake is smog intensified as multiple wakes are merged within a long sequence of wake chains. The intensified wake significantly lowers the power production of the downstream wind turbines. As shown in Fig. 12(c), wind turbines are relocated in diagonal wind turbine arrays to avoid wakes flowing from the east to west. As a result, as shown in Table 1, the wind farm power efficiency improves over 100%.