The shrinkage ndash temperature curves for
The particle size and the particle size distribution of the powders were determined with 1400W light-scattering particle size analyzer (Microtrac S3500, Montgomeryville, PA, USA). The measurements were performed in isopropanol and the results were derived from the volume particle size (dv). The specific surface area SA of the powder was determined with the Brunauer, Emmett, Teller method using a Quantachrome Instruments, NOVA 2000 e (Bonynton Beach, Florida, USA). The diameter of the particles was calculated from the SA .
The X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) data were collected at room temperature using a diffractometer (PANalytical, X’Pert PRO MPD, Almelo, The Netherlands). The samples were analyzed in the 2θ range from 10° to 90° in steps of 0.017°, with an integration time of 200 s and in the 2θ range from 27° to 29° with an integration time of 400 s. The phases were identified using the PDF-2 database . The lattice parameters and the quantity of PZT phases were calculated using a Topas R (Bruker AXS, Karlsruhe, Germany) software package. The PZT and PZT_A3 were analyzed using a Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR; PerkinElmer Spectrum 100, Massachusetts, USA) in the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode (a diamond crystal/KRS-5 substrate). The FT-IR spectra of the samples were recorded in the range 4000–400 cm−1 with a resolution of 2 cm−1.