The effects of biomass composition and preparation method on catalyst

Generally, the S2p photoelectron peak (163–168 eV) is of particular significance in the sulfonated materials and has been used to confirm the presence of SO3H groups [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20]. Here, XPS surface analysis also revealed the effects of preparation method on catalyst surface structure. In this work, the AC sulfonated by radical method (method 1) exhibited only a single S peak at 168 eV, assigned to the surface bound SO3H groups, while those prepared by conc.