Illicit discharges Table nbsp Source identification Identifying and quantifying

It has been suggested that chemical substances such as caffeine, tryptophan, triclosan, cotinine and carbamazepine can be also used as confirmatory indicators for human-derived sewage as distinct from animal and avian sources (Sauve et al., 2012 and Panasiuk et al., 2015). Low concentrations in surface water discharges and analytical interferences (e.g., matrix effects) can be a source of inaccuracy with hydrophilic organic compounds such as carbamazepine and triclocarban being the more promising indicators.