Another strategy is based on surface functionalization of silica nanoparticles

Finally, we should say a word about the chosen salt concentration of 0.2 M for all studied phase diagrams. This concentration value is typically in the range, for which a Hofmeister series reversal can be expected upon concentration variation [29]. Indeed, in a seminal paper, Schwierz et al. [29] have demonstrated how subtle Hofmeister effects are and how series reversals can occur at mixed hydrophilic/hydrophobic interfaces as a function of salt concentration and interface polarity. Having this in mind, it VX809 is by no means astonishing that e.g. chloride and bromide have a similar impact on the critical solution temperatures. It can even be expected that at higher salt concentrations, the series are indeed significantly altered.
3.3. Effect of sucrose on the Winsor III area
Using sucrose as additive allows a comparison between charged and uncharged molecules to be done. The strength of the retention of water due the osmolytic property of sucrose can be then compared to the water retention due to salt ion pairs. Fig. 6 represents the liquid–liquid equilibrium behavior of aqueous 0.2 M sucrose and sodium sulfate solutions, C4E1 and decane mixtures. A Winsor III area with a classic fishlike shape is still obtained using sucrose as additive.