A double phase BMS265246 of white oil–water emulsion, O/W (1) → W/O → O/W (2), was induced by the in situ surface activation of CaCO3 nanoparticles via adsorption different amounts of amphiphilic molecules.
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CaCO3 nanoparticles; White oil; Sodium stearate; Absorption; In situ surface activation; Double phase inversion
Pickering emulsion investigated by Pickering for the first time has been applied in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutics and oil extraction industry due to their advantages such as low emulsifier usage, low toxic effects, environmentally friendly and high emulsion stability, etc. , , , ,  and . Many reports have described inorganic nanoparticles easily adsorb amphiphilic compound in an aqueous medium, thus changing the surface wettability , ,  and . By interaction with the amphiphilic compound, the inorganic nanoparticles can be activated in situ and become surface-active particles. The changes of wettability may induce a phase inversion, W/O → O/W or O/W → W/O, or a double phase inversion, O/W (1) → W/O → O/W (2), if the concentration of amphiphilic compound is increased to be large enough .