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To date, solely a single controlled study of human exposure to Gastrodin smoke has been published (Barregard et al., 2006). Inflammatory mediators and coagulation factor levels of the exposed subjects were altered and free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation increased after wood smoke exposure. Although this is the only controlled study of wood smoke exposure published to date including a small number of subjects (13), it is suggestive of wood smoke-associated systemic inflammatory effects.
In the study of Happo et al. (2013) health-related toxicological properties of PM1 emissions from five modern and two old technology appliances were examined. Mice were intratracheally exposed to a wide range of particulate samples and then bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was assayed for indicators of inflammation, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The results indicated that although older technologies emit higher amounts of PM1 per energy unit produced, PM1 emitted from modern appliances induced higher inflammatory potential, probably due to ash-related compounds.