Given the number of people for whom food expenditure is a high proportion of income, trade-offs between food safety and cost need to be balanced whilst seeking to ensure universal access to safe and affordable food (FORHEAD, 2014). Consumer willingness and ability to pay a premium for improved food safety will determine the feasibility of upgrading production methods and supply chains in ways that could influence farmer behaviour. Research on this issue to date is mainly limited to surveys of urban AZD2932 and demand for organic products, with less knowledge available for rural populations, lesser cities and consumers purchasing from traditional vendors and wet markets rather than supermarkets (FORHEAD, 2014). The demography of consumption patterns in China is also complex and rapidly changing. Age income, education and lifestyle all affect preferences for improvements in food safety and environmental quality, and similarly await more systematic research (Garnet and Wilkes, 2014).
2.1.4. Limitations in governance and central-local relations