Given the previous results the recalcitrance

AcknowledgementsThis research was supported by TIC10 research grant from the Alberta Water Research Institute, the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative, and a Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) Senior Industrial Research Chair (IRC) in Oil Sands Tailings Water Treatment through the support by Syncrude Canada Ltd., Suncor Energy Inc., Shell Canada, Canadian Natural Resources Ltd., Total E&P Canada Ltd., EPCOR Water Services, IOWC Technologies Inc., Alberta Innovates — Energy and Environment Solution, and Alberta Environment and Sustainable Resource Development.
Appendix A. Supplementary data
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Keywords
Tamiflu; Relenza; River water environment; Mathematical epidemic models; Drug-resistant influenza virus; Wildfowls; Ozonation; Sewage treatment plant
1. Introduction
In recent years, an issue with the anti-influenza drug, oseltamivir (Tamiflu®, OS), which is used to treat influenza, and its pharmacologically active metabolite (oseltamivir carboxylate: OC) being discharged into river environments has drawn significant attention (S?derstr?m et al., 2009, Ghosh et al., 2010b, Prasse et al., 2010, Azuma et al., 2012, Azuma et al., 2013 and Singer et al., 2014). Wildfowl living in river basins carry all types of the influenza virus and are in fact the origins of type A influenza, which infect and spread throughout humans, poultry and swine (Suarez and Schultz-Cherry, 2000 and Wang et al., 2008). For this reason, there are deep concerns about outbreaks of drug-resistant influenza viruses as a result of wildfowl consuming river water containing anti-influenza drugs and the risk for epidemics among humans (Singer et al., 2007 and Straub, 2009).