Theoretical models and empirical studies

Certain functions and structures of ecosystems are valued by people because they serve to regulate Cilengitide conditions and the related aspects mentioned above, provide material products and contribute nonmaterial human benefits. To safeguard the regulating, provisioning and cultural services of ecosystems, their structures and functions need to be monitored and protected. This is the aim of environmental directives and conventions such as the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 and the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (Air Convention, UNECE, 2013). The framework of the Air Convention, and the activities therein nerve net refer to climate change and ecological structures and functions, comprises the Cooperative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) and the Working Group on Effects, which manage six International Cooperative Programmes (ICP). The ICP Forests, ICP Vegetation and ICP Integrated Monitoring are of special relevance for assessing the impacts of climate change and air pollution on ecological structures and functions.