In many thermal processes to bio-substrates, combined heat and mass (liquid water and water vapor) are transferred within the sample and through its free surface to the environment, driven by temperature and concentration differences, respectively; and water phase change that HKI272 occurs, affects such combination. Interaction with convection, which takes a variety of patterns and thermal regimes, develops locally on the free surface according with the equipment configuration, operation and the product shape, and can be used to enhance and control the process. Conversely, MW heating acts directly within the moist sample, for the friction produced by the dipoles rotation and by the migration of ionic species to regions of opposite charge generates volumetric heat, specially where the liquid water is in relative excess  and .
Fig. 1. Heat (left) and mass (right) transfer nomenclature. The two schemes are to be superimposed one another. Arrows are respective of transfer fluxes.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide