Regarding the hydrothermal synthesis, the mixture was placed in a PTFE lined stainless steel autoclave and heated in a static oven at 200 °C for 24 h. The solid product was washed with distilled water, dried at 100 °C and subsequently calcined at 550 °C for 5 h under static air Obeticholic Acid in a tubular furnace to remove the organic template from the catalyst framework. In a typical microwave synthesis, 35 g of the precursor solution was transferred in a transparent PTFE autoclave (about 50 ml) and irradiated in a single autoclave microwave reactor (MicroSYNTH, Milestone, 800 W). Synthesis temperature was raised within 5 min to 180 °C and kept for 6 h at that temperature.
2.2. Fabrication of SAPO-34/SiC foam composite
Open cell β-SiC foam (60 pore per inch, PPI), with a BET surface area of 34 m2/g was obtained from SICAT (www.sicatcatalyst.com, France). SiC foam was diced into rectangular shapes with a typical size of 1 × 1 × 2 cm (weighted around 0.2 g). Three pieces of SiC foams (around 0.6 g overall) were loaded in the holes of a special PTFE holder (as shown in Fig. 1) and immersed into 35 g of the precursor solution for SAPO-34 growth. The advantage of fossil specific holder is to prevent the adhesion of the precipitated powders formed after the crystallization- on the foam surface. After the reaction, the SiC foams were thoroughly washed with distilled water, sonicated for 10 min to remove the loosely attached crystals and the unconverted solution. The SAPO-34/SiC foam composite dried and calcined under the same conditions as powders.