The molar absorbtivity were calculated using Beer Lamber Eq. (1)equation(1)A=ε.c.lA=ε.c.lwhere A is absorbance (no units), ε is the molar absorbtivity with units of L mol−1 cm−1, l is the path length of the sample – that is, the path length of the cuvette in which the sample is contained. We will express this measurement in centimeters and c is the concentration of the Carminomycin in solution, expressed in mol L−1.
The fluorescence quantum yields (?F) were calculated from Eq. (2) using N,N-dimethyl-6-propionyl-2-naphthylamine in EtOH (?Fstd = 0.75) as the standard .equation(2)?F=?FstdFAstdIn2FstdAIstdnstd2where F and Fstd are dominance hierarchy the areas under the fluorescence curves of the compounds and the standard, respectively. A and Astd are the respective absorbance peaks of the sample and standard at the excitation wavelengths; I and Istd are the relative intensities of the exciting light, and n2 and n2std are the refractive indices of the solvents used for the sample and standard respectively.