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0%). See Figure 1. There was no correlation amongst puppy dimension or form and depth of damage (P < 0.59 and P < 0.83, resp.). Bites to the hands were most common (177, 41.1%). Superficial dog bite injuries were most common (340, 78.9%). They were associated with injuries to the face (P < 0.005) and the lower extremity (P < 0.001). Deep injuries were correlated Piperacillin Sodium with injures to the upper extremity (P < 0.001). There was no difference in the depth of injury between patients with single and those with multiple bites (P < 0.95). There was no correlation between dog size and injury type (P < 0.17). Injuries to the hand were more common in the older cohort (P < 0.03), whereas injuries to the lower extremity were more frequent in the younger population (P �� 0.23). Elderly patients more often needed operative treatment (P < 0.

006) and were far more typically hospitalized (P < 0.001).Figure 1Dog types (21.1% known, 78.9% unknown).Table 1Patient's characteristics.Table 2 summarizes the characteristics of patients with secondary presentations. For the 47 (11.4%) patients with secondary presentations, the median time since the dog bite was 3.8 days (SD 3.9, range 1�C21). The time span was not associated with the depth of injury (P < 0.12), nor with the localisation of injury (P < 0.47). All these patients (47, 100%) presented because of signs of infection. Thirty-one (65.9%) were already being treated with an antibiotic when presenting to our ED; co-amoxicillin was the most common primary antibiotic (27/47 patients, 57.4%). See Figure 2 for an overview on the treatment of patients with secondary presentations.

Note that 16/47 (34.0%) of all sufferers with secondary presentations had not nonetheless acquired any antibiotic therapy and that 15 (31.9%) with the patients with secondary presentations had to be operated on. Infections occurred extra usually in individuals with injuries to the hands (P < 0.006) and were associated with a greater need for surgical treatment (OR 10.01, 95% CI 6.91�C14.84, P < 0.0001). Depth of injury was not associated with secondary presentations (P < 0.18). Age was not associated with increased risk of secondary presentations (OR 1.1, 95% CI 0.96�C1.24, P < 0.068).Figure 2Treatment of patients with secondary presentations: primary (a) and secondary (b) antibiotic therapy.Table 2Secondary presentations.Age, injury depth, and secondary presentations were risk factors for hospitalisation (all P < 0.

001). 4. DiscussionWe aimed to characterise main and kinase inhibitor CP-724714secondary presentations following canine bite injuries. Several scientific studies have found the hands will be the elements from the body most often injured in dog bites [3, 13]. Our examine demonstrates that advancing age is linked by using a higher proportion of dog bite injuries on the hands. We can only speculate concerning the causes. As elderly sufferers may suffer from impaired sight, neurological diseases, or reduction of coordination, they might be significantly less ready to interpret www.selleckchem.com/products/chir-124.htmland react towards the changes inside the dog's behaviour [14].