This cross-sectional study complied with the Calcitriol guidelines of the Declaration of Helsinki and was authorized by the Healthcare Ethics Committee of Chang Gung Memorial Clinic, a Calcitriol health care middle in the northern element of Taiwan. Age, sex, use of vitamin D3 (calcitriol), use of calcium-based phosphate binders, use of aluminum-based phosphate binders, use of calcimimetics, and scientific knowledge ended up received from the patientsâ health care documents.
Fasting blood, urine, and dialysate samples were collected on the same working day amongst Oct 1 and November 30, 2009 during every patientâs yearly routine evaluation. Residual renal perform was calculated as follows: (renal normalized urea nitrogen clearance + renal normalized creatinine [Cr] clearance)/two. The plasma, dialysate, and urine concentrations of Cr, serum albumin, and urea nitrogen were calculated making use of routine laboratory techniques. Protein nitrogen physical appearance (PNA) was normalized to body bodyweight (nPNA). High amounts of SO2, NO2, CO, ozone O3, and particulate subject (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of <10 Î¼m and <2.5 Î¼m (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively) were defined as greater than or equal to the median value of SO2 (4.4 ppb), NO2 (20.1 ppb), CO (0.53 ppm), O3 (28.7 ppb), PM10 (49.1 Î¼g/m3), and PM2.5 (29.69 Î¼g/m3). Anuria was defined as a 24-hour urine volume <50 cm3. HPT was defined as an intact PTH (iPTH) level â¥180 pg/dL.7 Hypoalbuminemia was defined as albumin <3.8 g/dL.8
Air-quality status and analysis
To verify our hypothesis that air-pollutant levels are correlated with iPTH values in patients undergoing PD, we analyzed the database from the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network operated by the Environmental Protection Administration.9 We recorded and analyzed the difference in air quality according to the patientsâ living areas. The referenced items included the previous 1-year (12 months) average concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3. Air-pollution levels were recorded by a network of 24 monitoring stations near or in the patientsâ living areas throughout Taiwan. The 141 patients lived in 25 different districts. In this study, generally, data on air pollutants were obtained from the monitoring station in the same district as the patient. If patientsâ living districts did not have a monitoring station, the air-pollutant data from the nearest station were used (within 15 km). If the patient lived between two monitoring stations, the air-pollutant data of the nearest station were selected. Terrain was also a factor therefore, data from the nearest monitoring station and on the same side of the mountain as where patients lived were selected. The level of air pollutants was checked every hour for 1 year. As a result, we calculated the average of approximately 8,760 (24Ã365) pieces of data for every monitoring station to determine the 1-year average level of air pollutants in this study.
The KolmogorovâSmirnov test was used to test if variables were normally distributed. A P-value>.05 was needed to believe a normal distribution. Data are expressed in phrases of medians and interquartile range in nonnormal distribution variables and as implies Â± standard deviation in regular distribution variables.