Fig. 3. (A) Normalized dielectric loss as a function of inverse temperature, displaying peak shifts for the two dissipation modes at different frequencies. Frequencies for peak I: 22, 46, 96 and 124 kHz, peak II: 5.5, 11, 22 and 46 kHz. (B) Semi-logarithmic plot of frequency versus peak position in inverse temperature, demonstrating Arrhenius behavior over two AMG232 of magnitude of applied frequency for four samples.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
While it may not be possible to determine the exact chemical nature of the bonds without further investigation, recent FTIR studies on ULK dielectrics , combined with measurements of dielectric relaxation in porous glasses ,  and , suggest that the two observed channels for relaxation in the humidified dielectric can be related to the reorientation of water molecules trapped in the pores. The frequencies and activation energies of the two processes may be associated with relaxation in two different types of silanol environments . In this picture, peak I is linked to “physisorbed” or singly hydrogen bonded water, while peak II with doubly hydrogen bonded or “chemisorbed” water.