BEYOGLU is a region located on the European side of Istanbul, Turkey, by the Golden Horn. It was called Pera (means “Across” in Greek) during the Middle Era, and the name remained in frequent use until the early 20th century and the founding of the Turkish Republic. The most favorite sightseeing route for tourists is modern Beyoglu or Pera area, placed in Taksim, which actually wields a whole number of historical significance points from historical buildings, churches, old Ottoman hans, charming arcades, to bazaars and fine restaurants, all easily accessible in the same area over a couple of hours, depending on what your interest is. The main road is İstiklâl Caddesi, running into the environs from Taksim Square, is a 1 mile (1.6 km) street of not only shops, restaurants, pubs, clubs, wine houses for pedestrians but also cinemas, bookstores, theatres and art galleries. Some parts of İstiklâl have a 19th-century metropolitan character and there are Neoclassical and Art Nouveau buildings along the avenue.