Resveratrol is a polyphenolic phytoalexin that demonstrates anti inflammatory, anti tumour, immunomodulatory, this research cardioprotective, anti oxidative and chem opreventive capabilities. We recently reported that resveratrol can inhibit IL 1 induced apoptosis in chondro cytes through downregulation of NFB regulated anti apop totic gene IAP inhibitor side effects products mainly through proteasome inhibition. Sig nalling pathways have been found to malfunction selleck chem Romidepsin in chondrocytes and synovial cells in OA and RA. Anti vascular endothelial growth factor antibody was pur chased from NeoMarkers. Monoclonal anti PARP antibodies were purchased from Becton Dickinson. Sox 9 antibody was purchased from Acris Antibodies GmbH. All antibodies were used at concentrations and dilutions rec ommended by the manufacturer. Growth medium and chemicals Growth medium containing 10% FCS, 25 gml ascorbic acid, 50 IUml streptomycin, 50 IUml penicillin, 2. Chondrocyte isolation and culture Cartilage tissue samples from healthy femoral head articular cartilage obtained during joint replacement surgery for femoral neck fractures were used to isolate primary human articular chondrocytes. Cartilage slices were digested primarily with 1% pronase for 2 hours at 37 C and subsequently with 0. 2% collagenase for 4 hours at 37 C. Primary chondro cytes were cultured at a density of 200,000 cells in 60 mm petri dishes in monolayer culture for a period of 24 hours at 37 C with 5% carbon dioxide. Cartilage samples were derived from human patients with full informed consent and local eth ics committee approval. Experimental design Chondrocyte monolayer cultures were washed three times with serum starved medium and incubated for 1 hour with serum starved medium. Serum starved human articular chondrocytes were either left untreated, treated with 10 ngml IL 1 alone for the indicated time periods, or pre treated with 50 M resveratrol, 50 M curcumin or 50 M res veratrol and 50 M curcumin for 4 hours followed by co treat ment with 10 ngml IL 1 and 50 M resveratrol, or 50 M curcumin or 50 M resveratrol and 50 M curcumin for 24 hours or for the indicated time periods. Cell viability and proliferation assay The effects of resveratrolcurcumin on the cytotoxic effects of IL 1 were examined by the 3 2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide uptake method as previously described. Briefly, for the cell proliferation assay, 5,000 chondrocytes per well were cultured for 24 hours in a 96 well plate and then treated with 10 ngml IL 1, 50 M resveratrol, 50 M curcumin, 50 M resveratrol and 50 M curcumin, or pre treated with 50 M resveratrol, 50 M curcumin, or 50 M resveratrol and 50 M curcumin for 4 hours and then co treated with 10 ngml IL 1, or left untreated and evaluated after 24 hours at 37 C. For evaluation, the medium was removed and 100 l fresh medium and 10 l MTT solution were added to each well and incubated for 4 hours at 37 C5% car bon dioxide. Subsequently, 100 l MTT solubilization solution was added and the plates incubated until the cells were bleached. The transmission signal was determined at 570 nm using a microplate reader. A sample without cell loading was used as a baseline value.