Birds are easily disturbed by observers close to Toyocamycin and therefore their abundance can be greatly underestimated in standard insect pollinator survey techniques. Specifically targeted methods to accurately assess bird abundances is required to accurately determine their importance as pollinators (e.g. Pattemore and Wilcove, 2012).
Mammals have not been reported visiting macadamia flowers, but bats and small non-flying mammals are common visitors of many other Proteaceae species (Collins and Rebelo, 1987 and Pattemore and Wilcove, 2012).
4.3.5. Improving pollination by non-honey or stingless bee pollinators
To improve the contribution of wild insect pollination in macadamia orchards, an understanding of their potential efficiency and effectiveness as pollinators is needed. Further, knowledge about their diurnal (or nocturnal) activity under variable weather conditions and their interaction with other pollinators will allow an assessment of which pollinators can be targeted for better management strategies.