Modelling and evaluating municipal solid waste management strategies in a mega-city: The case of Ho Chi Minh City

Le ThiKimOanh6

Jacqueline M Bloemhof-Ruwaard2

Joost CL van Buuren3

Jack GAJ van der Vorst2

Wim H Rulkens3

1Van Lang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

2Operations Research and Logistics, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

3Environmental Technology, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

Le ThiKimOanh, Van Lang University, 45 Nguyen KhacNhu, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Email:


Ho Chi Minh City is a large city that will become a mega-city in the near future. The city struggles with a rapidly increasing

flow of municipal solid waste and a foreseeable scarcity of land to continue landfilling, the main treatment of municipal

solid waste up to now. Therefore, additional municipal solid waste treatment technologies are needed. The objective of this

article is to support decision-making towards more sustainable and cost-effective municipal solid waste strategies in developing

countries, in particular Vietnam. A quantitative decision support model is developed to optimise the distribution of municipal

solid waste from population areas to treatment plants, the treatment technologies and their capacities for the near future

given available infrastructure and cost factors.

Article Notes

Declaration of conflicting interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.