However in nuclear energy industry operations such as transportation

The shock absorber (general view presented in Fig. 1) consists of stainless steel tubes attached to an upper platform and a lower platform. Three types of shock absorbers with different geometrical data Sildenafil used at the Ignalina NPP. The geometrical parameters (tubes diameter and height, wall thickness) depend on the possible height of cask drop. The tubes are welded in the longitudinal direction.
Fig. 1. Shock absorber – general view: 1 – upper platform; 2 – tube; 3 – lower platform.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
The stiff top construction distributes the cask weight and, in case of the drop of the cask, the impact forces to all buckling tubes. The buckling tubes will carry the weight of the cask under normal conditions. In case of a drop of the cask, the buckling tubes dissipate the kinetic and potential energy and reduce the impact force to the floor.
The as-received mechanical properties of the sheet material presented by the manufacturer in the quality certificate vary in a wide range, therefore, the accurate mechanical properties of the sheet metal and the welded zone are required for buckling simulation of the shock absorber. It should be also noticed that in the manufacturing process of the shock absorber tube, it is necessary to use such welding electrodes which produce welds with similar mechanical properties to the tube material in order to avoid the occurrence of a stiffness zone. A stiffness zone in the tube would influence an adverse effect on the crashworthiness of the tube.