Pumped storage plants are modelled as individual units

Fig. 3. Carbon Intensity (g?kWh) for both carbon price scenarios.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
Total generation cost is the cost including fuel, variable operations and maintenance costs, start and shutdown costs and emissions costs. Generation cost is the total variable cost of generation. Total generation costs are primarily a function of fuel type and system size and this Talarozole is reflected in high total generation cost in Germany. Total system costs rise by approximately 10 billion euros when moving from a carbon tax of €20/tonne to €45/tonne across the region. Approximately 7.8 billion euros of heartwood increase in cost is directly attributable to the change in carbon tax (Table 11).
Table 11.
Total generation costs (€000) for each country for both carbon tax scenarios.Total generation costs €20/tonneTotal generation costs €45/tonneAI€1,151,278€1,371,389BE€1,095,898€1,868,779DE€12,942,379€16,849,366FR€3,357,793€3,247,612GB€9,265,986€12,048,453LU€42,378€47,358NL€3,645,669€5,935,828Total€31,501,381€41,368,784Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV